1. Hirsch DL, Garfein ES, Christensen AM, Weimer KA, Saadeh PB, Levine JP: Use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing to produce orthognathically ideal surgical outcomes: a paradigm shift in head and neck reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:2115-2122, 2009
  2. Bell RB: Computer planning and intraoperative navigation in cranio-maxillary surgery. Atlas Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin N Am 22:135-156, 2010
  3. Hanasono MM, Jacob RF, Bidaut L, Robb GL, Skoracki RJ: Midfacial reconstruction using virtual planning, rapid prototype modeling, and stereotactic navigation. Plast Reconstr Surg 126(6):2002-2006, 2010
  4. Sharaf B, Levine JP, Hirsch DL, Bastidas JA, Schiff BA, Garfein ES: Importance of computer-aided design and manufacturing technology in the multidisciplinary approach to head and neck reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg 21(4):1277-1280, 2010
  5. Tepper OM, Sorice S, Hershman GN, Saadeh P, Levine JP, Hirsch D: Use of virtual 3-dimensional surgery in post-traumatic craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69:733-741, 2011
  6. Bell, RB, Weimer KA, Dierks EJ, Buehler M, Lubek JE: Computer planning and intraoperative navigation for palatomaxillary and mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69:724- 732, 2011
  7. Bui TG, Bell RB, Dierks EJ: Technological advances in the treatment of facial trauma. Atlas Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin N Am 20:81-94, 2012
  8. Seruya M, Borsuk D, Khalifian S, Carson B, Dalesio N, Dorafshar A: Computer-aided design and manufacturing in craniosynostosis surgery. J Craniofac Surg 24: 1100-1105, 2013
  9. Jacobs JMS, Dec W, Levine JP, McCarthy JG, Weimer KA, Moore K, Ceradini DJ: Best face forward: virtual modeling and custom device fabrication to optimize craniofacial vascularized composite allotransplantation. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 131: 64, 2013
  10. Matros E, Albornoz C, Rensberger M, Weimer K, Garfein E: Computer-assisted design and computer-assisted modeling technique optimization and advantages over traditional methods of osseous flap reconstruction. J Reconstr Microsurg 29(3)173-180, 2013
  11. Mardini S, Alsubaie S, Cayci C, Chim H, Wetjen N: Three-dimensional preoperative virtual planning and template use for surgical correction of craniosynostosis. J Plast Reconstr & Asthetic Surg 67 (3) 336-343, 2014
  12. Chim H, Wetjen N, Mardini S: Virtual surgical planning in craniofacial surgery. Semin Plast Surg 28:150-158, 2014
  13. Monaco C, Stranix J, Avraham T, Brecht L, Saadeh P, Hirsch D, Levine J: Evolution of surgical techniques for mandibular reconstruction using free fibula flaps: the next generation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2066–E2073, 2016.
  14. Patel N, Kim B, Zaid W: Use of virtual surgical planning for simultaneous maxillofacial osteotomies and custom polyetheretherketone implant in secondary orbito-frontal reconstruction: importance of restoring orbital volume. J Craniofac Surg 00: 00–00, 2016.
  15. Monaco C, Stranix J, Lee ZH, Hirsch D, Levine J, Saadeh PB: A modified approach to extensive oromandibular reconstruction using free fibula flaps. J Craniofac Surg 28: 93–96, 2017.


  1. Roser SM, Ramachandra S, Blair H, Grist W, Carlson GW, Christensen AM, Weimer KA, Steed MB: The accuracy of virtual surgical planning in free fibula mandibular reconstruction: comparison of planned and final results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 68:2824-2832, 2010
  2. Antony AK, Chen WF, Kolokythas A, Weimer KA, Cohen MN: Use of virtual surgery and stereolithography-guided osteotomy for mandibular reconstruction with the free fibula. Plast Reconstr Surg 128(5):1080-1084, 2011
  3. Markiewicz MR, Bell RB: The use of 3D imaging tools in facial plastic surgery. Facial Plast Surg Clin N Am 19:655-682, 2011
  4. Haddock NT, Monaco C, Weimer KA, Hirsch DL, Levine JP, Saddeh PB: Increasing bony contact and overlap with computer-designed offset cuts in free fibula mandible reconstruction. J Craniofac Surg 2012;23: 1592-1595
  5. Hanasono M, Skoracki R: Computer-assisted design and rapid prototype modeling in microvascular mandible reconstruction. Laryngoscope 000:000-000, 2012
  6. Broer P, Tanna N, Franco P, Thanik V, Levine S, Garfein E, Saadeh P, Ceradini D, Hirsch D, Levine J: Ten-year evolution utilizing computer-assisted reconstruction for giant ameloblastoma. J Reconstr Microsurg 29: 173-180, 2013
  7. Doscher M, Garfein E, Bent J, Tepper O: Neonatal mandibular distraction osteogenesis: converting virtual surgical planning into an operative reality. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 78: 381-384, 2014
  8. Saad A, Winters R, Wise MW, Dupin C, St. Hilaire H: Virtual surgical planning in complex composite maxillofacial reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg 132 (3): 626-633, 2013
  9. Foley B, Thayer Q, Honeybrook A, McKenna S, Press S: Mandibular reconstruction using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing” an analysis of surgical results. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 71: e111-e119, 2013

Case Study/Review

  1. Xia JJ, Gateno J, Teichgraeber JF: A new paradigm for complex midface reconstruction: a reversed approach. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:693-703, 2009
  2. Chandran R, Keeler GD, Christensen AM, Weimer KA, Caloss R: Application of virtual surgical planning for total joint reconstruction with a stock alloplast system. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 69:285-294, 2011
  3. Markiewicz MR, Bell RB: Modern concepts in computer-assisted craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 19:295-301, 2011
  4. Patel A, Levine J, Brecht L, Saadeh P, Hirsch DL: Digital technologies in mandibular pathology and reconstruction. Atlas Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin N Am 20:95-106, 2012
  5. Sink J, Hamlar D, Kademani D, Khariwala SS: Computer-aided stereolithography for presurgical planning in fibula free tissue reconstruction of the mandible. J Reconstr Microsurg 28:395-404, 2012
  6. Haq J, Patel N, Weimer K, Matthews SN: Single stage treatment of ankylosis of the temprpmandibular joint using patient-specific total joint replacement and virtual surgical planning. British J of Oral Maxillofac Surg. 52:350-355, 2014
  7. Levine J, Soo Bae J, Soares M, Brecht L, Saadeh P, Cerandini D, Hirsch D: Jaw in a day: total maxillofacial reconstruction using digital technology. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 131:1383, 2013
  8. Cleveland EC, Zampell J, Avraham T, Lee ZH, Hirsch D, Levine J: Reconstruction of congenital mandibular hypoplasia with microvascular free fibula flaps in the pediatric population: a paradigm shift. J Craniofac Surg. 28: 79–83, 2017.
  9. Sosin M, Ceradini DJ, Hazen A, Levine JP, Staffenberg DA, Saadeh PB, Flores RL, Brecht LE, Bernstein GL, Rodriguez ED: Total face, eyelids, ears, scalp, and skeletal subunit transplant cadaver simulation: the culmination of aesthetic, craniofacial, and microsurgery principles. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 137: 1569, 2016.